The electricity sector accounts for about 25% of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the U.S. (the second largest source). This is a decrease of about 12% since 1990 due to increasing efficiency and a shift to lower and non-emitting sources of generation. Coal generates 24% of the energy in the U.S., followed by natural gas at 37%, nuclear at 20%, and renewables at 18% (all percentages as of 2019).

Issues with energy usage range from the production of electricity; its increasing use in transportation, buildings and other sectors; and related conservation and efficiency standards. Electricity production and energy efficiency are especially amenable to direct regulation and incentives by state and local agencies.

Examples of effective actions include state-wide Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) and implementation of RPS portfolios by municipal utilities, Community Choice Energy programs, and investor owned utilities. Local programs and incentives include those for energy conservation, increased energy efficiency, battery storage, demand management, building electrification, and reach or stretch building codes.

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